We hope to assist patients, as well as family, and friends of those who suffer from Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy (RSD) or more recently known as Complex Regional Pain Syndrome (CRPS). This organization was formed in July 1990; and since then, has sent information regarding RSD/CRPS to hundreds of thousands patients and professionals worldwide. The free information we offer will help educate and inform you, your family, friends as well as your physician regarding the signs, symptoms, diagnosis and the latest methods of treatment for RSD/CRPS.
Doctor Hooshmand and I have co-authored the following article: Sympathetic Modulation.
Below is an abstract from the article Sympathetic Modulation.
Please click on the link below to view the full text of this article in PDF-format.
The sympathetic function is modulated at all levels of peripheral and central nervous system from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), to substantia gelatinosa (SG).
At the periphery, the efferent sympathetic nerves control the circulation. The afferent sympathetic nerves are influenced by the putative effects of acetylcholine and dynorphin on one end, and the substance P (SP) on the other.
At the spinal substantia gelatinosa (SG) level of dorsal horn (DH) the superficial layers I-III receives substance P (SP) from the periphery. The deeper layers IV and V act as inhibitory layers showing high concentrations of dynorphin.